Wednesday, January 19, 2011

Mathematics Definitions by Brendon


A prime number (or a prime) is a number that has exactly two distinct natural number divisors: 1 and itself. The smallest twenty-five prime numbers (all the prime numbers under 100) are:2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97.

6: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36
54: 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18, 27, 54
The common factors are: 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 18.
The greatest common factor is: 18.
  

A composite number is a positive integer which has a positive divisor other than one or itself. In other words, if n > 0 is an integer and there are integers 1 < a, b < n such that n = a ×b, then n is composite. By definition, every integer greater than one is either a prime number or a composite number. The number one is a unit – it is neither prime nor composite. For example, the integer 14 is a composite number because it can be factored as 2 × 7. Likewise, the integers 2 and 3 are not composite numbers because each of them can only be divided by one and itself.
The first 105 composite numbers (sequence A002808 in OEIS) are
4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 99, 100, 102, 104, 105, 106, 108, 110, 111, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 128, 129, 130, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 140.
Every composite number can be written as the product of two or more (not necessarily distinct) primes; furthermore, this representation is unique up to the order of the factors. This is called the fundamental theorem of arithmetic.
prime factors of a number are repeated it is called a powerful number. If none of its prime factors are repeated, it is called squarefree. (All prime numbers and 1 are squarefree.)
Another way to classify composite numbers is by counting the number of divisors. All composite numbers have at least three divisors. In the case of squares of primes, those divisors are {1,p,p2}. A number n that has more divisors than any x < n is a highly composite number (though the first two such numbers are 1 and 2).

In number theory, integer factorization or prime factorization is the breaking down of a composite number into smaller non-trivial divisors, which when multiplied together equal the original integer. 
sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_number
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_factorization
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composite_number
http://www.mathleague.com/help/fractions/fractions.htm#primenumbers

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